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I was driving north on Williams Lake Road. The woodland on either side had been managed
in a variety of ways. Some was left
alone to fill in with underbrush. Some
had been grazed into uselessness. Some
of the most interesting had been selectively logged and the ground was covered
in chips. That technique minimizes the
threat of wildfire. I was headed north
to visit Theresa Everest. She and her husband Eric were managing their 130
acres to raise cattle.
Unlike the Williams Lake Road, Everest Ranch is on a
west-facing hillside in dense forest that supports a wide variety of
trees. There is some open pasture, but
the majority is forest on a slope, not the kind of acreage you would typically
envision for cows. With a background in farming,
logging and service in the Navy, this was Theresa’s dream ranch that she had
been planning for 20 years. She is
deliberately initiating development of the property into silvopasture. Silvopasture is the intentional combination of trees, forage plants
and livestock together as an integrated, intensively-managed system.
sounds like a lot of work, that’s because it is. To get it started is intensive. The Everests have invested in over $100,000
worth of machinery. That includes a
small sawmill, a Kubota Track Loader and a forest management grade brush hog
that will turn pieces of wood up to 8 inches in diameter into chips. The payback is a piece of property that the livestock
can almost manage by themselves, rich soil with a large carbon reserve, lush
grass and a lumber-producing forest that can be sustainably logged for
Finnish family that homesteaded their property in 1889, the Everests are taking
it one step at a time. They want to see
their work survive and still be sound 130 years later like the hewn log
buildings that they still use and live in.
Just as having the right tools is critical, so is having the right
animals. Highland cattle are one of the oldest registered cattle breeds in the
world. They eat
brush as well as grass. Their double coat of hair sheds water and insulates in
the winter. When it comes to hardy
animals, Scottish Highlands rule.
Paired with the
cattle are Icelandic Sheep. Another pure
ancient breed, Icelandic sheep are tough. They also have a double coat of water
shedding outer hair and light warm inner wool.
The two are often woven together and knitted into lopapeysa,
the distinctive traditional Icelandic sweater of concentric rings. These sheep will graze on bushes and grass,
so they are perfect for the transition taking place at Everest Ranch.
The first step
is Fuel Reduction. In practice this
means clearing out small trees and underbrush.
Some of it can be used as lumber or firewood. Other parts can be charred for use as
biochar. Much of the rest is ground into
mulch. Limbs are cut up to 10 feet off
the ground so no “ladder fuel” is left in the forest. While fire prevention is important, creating
a rich soil that will support forage grasses is the goal.
soil recover and develop a stand of grass takes time. So cattle are not introduced for the first
year while the second step of recovery takes place.
animals are allowed to graze down the grass, but only for a week. Then they are moved to another area and not
returned for a month or more while the first area recovers. This technique of rotational grazing keeps
the habitat healthy in more ways than one.
The cattle trample small trees and bushes so those are returned to the
soil. The grass flourishes in the manure
and urine left by the cattle. Because of
the constant rotation pests and parasites can’t proliferate. Having long sight-lines also limits cover for
potential predators. The Everests did
lose some sheep to a mountain lion when there was dense brush to hide in, but
have not had problems since opening up the pasture. The sheep come back to a holding pen at
The ranch has
many springs; some that were developed by the original homesteaders are being
re-developed for the grazing operation.
But the gullies where water runs free are fenced off to prevent
erosion. In fact an entire 20 acre field
is not being used as pasture because it is essentially a wetland and grazing
cattle would destroy it.
planning, attentive management and strategic investments, Everest Ranch will
become a model for sustainably raising cows in the woods.
of a healthy environment are diversity and abundance. The Everests are responsible for their income
and the future health of their property.
To understand silvopasture practices in the National Forest, I met with
Tim Coleman, from the Kettle Range Conservation Group to tour the Lambert Creek
watershed in Ferry County where private cattle are permitted to graze on public
The cows in
this watershed were Herfords. They are
much larger than Highland Cattle, 1200 to 1800 pounds. I have also seen Angus Cattle of about the
same size grazing in the forest along the South Fork of Sherman Creek. The
two scenes were very different. Along
Lambert Creek road the ground had barely enough cover to be green. This was especially apparent where a fence
separated the public grazing land from private property. Grass and brush stood two to three feet high
on the private land and barely an inch on the public land. The cattle were grazing lush green grass in a
logged area along Sherman Creek.
looked bad on Lambert until I consulted with Brandon Weinmann, grazing and
invasive species coordinator for the Colville National Forest about how they
manage rangeland and saw it from a different perspective. The Forest Service manages grazing allotments
on the “pasture level”, that is they look at the overall health of the plants,
water and soil in the whole pasture.
There are usually several “pastures” in a grazing allotment and the
Forest Service will determine the timing, duration, intensity and frequency of
how they are permitted to be grazed. The
condition of one spot at one time does not necessarily indicate the health of
the whole pasture.
me around an allotment on Deadman Creek where the riparian area was in good
shape despite use by cattle, elk and bears.
What I kept learning was that there are lots of variables.
bulls and steers of different ages, breeds and personalities behave differently
at different times in different areas. It
is hard to prescribe a set of guidelines that works in all situations. The Forest Service uses an allotment
management plan developed through the NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) which is tailored to each allotment.
have in common is an aversion to wolves.
Tim Coleman is a member of the Wolf Advisory Board (WAG), a group he
appreciates because although coming from different perspectives, they speak
openly about their opinions. All members
admit that pressure from wolves is moving the cattle in many areas to lower
parts of their range. This depletes the lower part sooner and leaves burnable
fuel on the higher pastures (grassoline).
beginning forage and the amount available at any point after animals are
introduced will indicate how much forage has been used and when cattle should
be moved, thus gauging the health of the ecosystem in terms of diversity and abundance.
Grasses have evolved to
bounce back from being eaten when young.
In his book, Holistic Management, Allan Savory advocates
rotational grazing as the most natural way to restore health to overgrazed
lands but cautions that it takes thoughtful planning and attention to actual
conditions on the whole property to make that work. That “whole” includes the plant and animal
community; the water cycle; the mineral cycle; and the energy flow. It is an economy that includes but does not
equate with money.
is that one size definitely does not fit all.
A variety of ungulates once ranged in the forests: deer, elk, moose and
herds of caribou. (According to Sinixt elder, Marilyn James, caribou herds were
once so large that they posed a threat to villages. The natives learned to
spook the caribou away from villages by hanging antlers in the trees.) Perhaps cows are a viable replacement for
those herds. But whether you can afford
an industrial-scale brush hog or just a chain saw and safety equipment,
promoting diversity and abundance takes attention and intension. It’s not as simple as putting cows in the
I keep a journal of what goes on each day and intend to write something about it each month, at the beginning of the month. A quick review of the last few blogs will show that I have been completely blowing that schedule. A quick review of my notes for June could be summarized “Work, Work, Work.” Actually that is not fair. There were lots of animals involved. Our cat had major (=expensive) veterinary crisis, but survived in fine shape.
We had visits from a bear, skunks, eagles, turkeys, deer and a 5 foot gopher snake that was following a black racer snake. We had a couple of family reunion events, a smaller one in Curlew and a major one with people from around the country at a resort on the Skagit River just after my father’s 97th birthday. Cheryl and I have been selling wine and map books at the Northeast Washington Farmer’s Market every Wednesday and Saturday 9 to 1.
the major event that lets me feel like I have time to write again is that we
have completed construction of a high tunnel greenhouse. It was one of those absolutely, positively
have-to-get-done projects namely because it cost several thousand dollars and
we need to get that back on a contract with the USDA Natural Resources
Conservation Service. They pay for the materials and we provide the labor. After waiting 3 years for the project to be
approved, we had to complete the work in one year, 2019. Neighbors Jeff Herman and Tom Saxon came over
and helped me through some tough spots. Of course no sane person is going to
plant a crop in a greenhouse in July, but with crops already starting to come
in, completing it during the Fall before winter would have been a huge strain.
So it will sit there and I will admire it from time to time, then protect it in
looking like a bountiful year for lots of crops. The grapes are looking very good. We just got
through an intense run of cherries. Our
neighbor gave us as much as we could pick of some very nice Van cherries. We had the biggest crops ever on our Royal
Ann and pie cherry trees. So for a few
days we were drying, freezing, making pies… if there was a hangup, it is the
pitter. You just can’t trust it. Even after slicing the “pitted”
cherries in half a few pits get away.
But I digress.
I’ve been reading some great books lately, which I don’t
have time to write about and gathering material for some articles. Those will remain unwritten for now too
because I need to work, work, work.
I haven’t written a blog since the violets and buttercups were blooming. Now the tulips, fruit trees, dandelions, Quince, Locust, Frittilaria, Iris and Lupine have all bloomed. Is Spring officially over when a bear tears down your bird feeder (5/27/19)? There is a lot to catch up on and nobody needs a really long article to read. So I am going to boil it all down to 10 topic areas and call it good.
Speaking of articles, The local Colville paper, the Statesman Examiner, ran an article about our winery on May 8th. Unfortunately unless you subscribe, you can’t look it up online. So I scanned it and there is a link here. The Silverado Express, another local paper, ran an article about the history of Tatapoo Rock that I wrote for the Heritage Network. That also is not available online so here is a link to the article on Tatapoo Rock, a landmark that is key to a lot of local history. The North Columbia Monthly is printing an article this month, Composing Compost. That article is available on this website. An article from earlier about Biochar published in the Monthly is also on this website . It prompted a talk with my brother-in-law Roger Ellison, who also makes and sells biochar among other things from his homestead, Thornbush Farm, on San Juan Island.
As you might have gathered, many of the articles are on various elements of Regenerative Agriculture . Postings about compost from Barr-Tech near Sprague, Washington prompted two of my friends to order semi-loads of compost and I bought a ton of it from one of them. It is part of the mix in the previous blog post Composing Compost 2 . I also continue to stack up pine straw and other forest litter that my wife, Cheryl, is collecting to reduce fire danger. It will be shredded into compost material too, although I have plenty from pruning the grape plants this spring.
Perhaps the biggest boost to my knowledge of Regenerative Agriculture came from attending the Global Earth Repair Conference at Port Townsend. I was pleased to meet Ronnie Cummins from the Organic Consumers Association in person. That is where I first heard about Regenerative Agriculture. I also listened to a talk by Peter Jackson on bio-remediation and decided to buy a book on Korean Natural Farming, JADAM by Youngsang Cho,. There is a lot to learn about growing your own microbes for fertilizer and pest control. It fits in well with making wine. You are bound to hear more about that in this blog. Doniga Markegard did an amazing job of presenting her experiences raising cattle a natural way. Much of it is in her book Dawn Again.
Sales of Grape Plants have been big this year despite not having as many plants on hand as I could have sold. I held the line this year and will release several hundred two year old plants next year. Of course it was also the season for pruning and starting new grape plants. There are about 300 of them putting on growth on the greenhouse-crushing pad. Many of this year’s plant sales were through the Ferry Conservation District, a unit of the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and I have purchased a very nice greenhouse kit through the NRCS. It is 20 feet by 24 feet, 14 feet high and still under construction. So you may see more about that also.
On May 9th, my sister Jeannette and her husband Bill visited and we went hunting for morel mushrooms. The weather was dry and the competition heavy on last year’s Boyds Fire burn. We did alright but the next week it rained hard so we went back and did even better. Younger folks willing to climb steep hillsides are bringing back more morels, but we are still working our way through the ones we have. Our younger neighbors Tom and Amber sold over 10 pounds of them at the Farmers Market today (6/1/2019) for $20/lb.
Speaking of the Farmers Market, it started a month ago. Cheryl and I are there in the center of Colville every Wednesday and Saturday selling wine, plants and maps. It is getting too late for plants, but we will stay on with wine and mapbooks. The rain presented a problem. Since our van broke down last year, we have been hauling the chairs, tables etc. in our 1975 Chevy Pickup. We needed a canopy for the truck and put a request out on Facebook. That worked great and we had one the same day and an even better one the next day. So now the truck bed is dry but that was far from the only “technical difficulty” we had these last two months.
The Map Metrics website crashed while our host tried to make it more secure. It had to be rebuilt from scratch. My main mapping and finance computer crashed losing all of the programs but thankfully not the data. It ran Windows 7. Some of my programs won’t run on anything later than that and our computer repair guy says that Microsoft made sure that any new hardware won’t run old software. Luckily he found a machine running Windows 7 in his back room and I am using it now. The list goes on including a new WiFi setup and a new satellite TV setup. But you get the idea, lots of down time and expensive repairs.
Some things can’t be repaired or replaced. Several friends of ours died in the last two months including our old neighbor, Clarence Tieszen; a fellow member of our Slow Food group, George Wells; an orcharding neighbor Jim Corvino; a long-time rock club hostess, Lucie Bristow, and our one-time dental hygienist, Kelley Wood. So in a time of very good-looking growth in the vineyard and new buildings and ideas we have to remember that most growth relies on a transformative dose of death.
To follow up on the last post about composing compost, mostly commercial from Barr-Tech near Sprague, I want to show the ingredients I am adding to the soil mix I am currently potting, planting and adding as mulch.
This tub is composted leaf mulch from the yard waste dump of the City of Colville. It is two years old and has a lot of red worms in it along with a complete set of other micro-organisms. I have to screen out rocks, sticks, clumps of leaves and assorted non-biodegradable garbage to mix this in but it gives the mix a good dose of living critters to spread to the rest.
This is a small bucket of potash, the stuff left when a fire burns all the way out. It has a good mix of minerals that the fungi can carry to the roots. It amounts to about 10% of the whole.
This tub is full of shredded grape prunings, pine needles and other small branches. So it is almost all plant-based carbon. It gives the mix a longer life with things to digest so the initial microbes that break down plant material have a lot to work with.
This is a bucket of biochar, that has been discussed in other blog posts. I could inoculate it with manure tea or other microbe-rich liquids, but that will happen naturally when the whole mix gets wet. It holds water and shelters bacteria. Again it is about 10% of the whole.
This is Barr-Tech green compost. It has been broken down from mostly landscaping waste and is organically certifiable. Because of the high temperatures that produce it, protozoa, nematodes and other “higher” organisms have not inhabited it yet. But they will quickly spread into it and fill the gap between freshly shredded material and a complete living soil.
The last tub (each large tub is about 20% of the mix) is aged cow manure from organically raised beef. It is crumbly and full of night-crawlers. Manure has a lot of nitrogen in it that will promote growth and good green color for photosynthesis. But too much of this good thing could heat up a pile of compost and unbalance the mix.
So that is the basic mix. You could include grass clippings, food waste and a lot of other rotting stuff. If you are building and turning piles of compost, they would be helpful in a mix like this, but not until they have broken down somewhat. Besides, there are some bigger critters that would go for the food waste (skunks, raccoons, rats…) that you really don’t want in your garden.
I tend not to put everything in one pile but to mix it just before it goes in pots or over the ground. That way the mycorrhizal fungi can grow in place and not have their hyphae broken. Just like water starts yeast growing, water starts fungi growing. They are actually closely related. So get out there and make your own mix. Living soil is good for everything in the world.
I could pick it out on the aerial photo, a little brown square next to the freeway by the Fishtrap exit. It looked small compared to the miles and miles of wheat fields and scab lands around Sprague, Washington. But when I got there, it seemed anything but small. I was researching and sometimes just plain searching for compost. Barr-Tech is the closest and certainly the biggest composting facility in northeast Washington. It processes 350 tons of compost each day. As part of a contract with the City of Spokane, green landscaping material, mostly branches and leaves, some wood in need of recycling, biosolids, food and paper waste arrives at the facility in enclosed semi truck trailers that are weighed and dumped one after the other. Windrows of steaming compost towered above huge loaders and other equipment stretching out of sight. The spacious modern office is solar powered. I met with manager Scott Deatherage and salesman Mike Brown there to learn how it worked.
Have you looked at bags of compost and potting soil
lately? Gourmet ingredients have
arrived, steer manure, sphagnum peat moss, mushroom compost, mycorrhizal fungi,
perlite, kelp meal, biochar… You
won’t find those at Barr-Tech. They have
two varieties, BT+ which includes the “green” yard waste mixed with
biosolids, food and paper waste and BT Green, which is just green yard
waste. BT Green can be used on certified
organic farms. BT+ cannot. On the plus side, buying bagged compost at an
average of $10 for 50 lbs. would cost $400/ton.
Buying compost at Barr-Tech costs $35- $45/cubic yard. I’m okay with adding my own ingredients, what
I came to find out was what is the basic process.
That can be as simple as stacking a bunch of yard waste and
waiting a year or so, or as complicated as layering leaves, branches, soil,
grass clippings etc. and adding yarrow blossoms, stinging nettle, valerian
flowers and oak back in specific places as prescribed by Rudolf Steiner, father
of Biodynamic Farming. In its favor,
Biodynamic researcher, Ehrenfried Pfeiffer pioneered composting municipal waste
in Oakland, California in 1950. It
worked incredibly well with bacteria multiplying 300 million times within 2 or
3 days but as documented in [Ital] Secrets of the Soil [end Ital] by Tompkins
and Bird, chemical companies opposed its use as fertilizer and the process was
stopped until closer to this century.
Barr-Tech is still at odds with chemical companies. I’ll deal with the market end later but on the receiving end just finding organic material not contaminated by chemicals is a big issue. Any crop, lawn or other waste source that has been treated with a chemical ending in “cide” will kill bacteria. Even chemicals marketed as fertilizer, especially ammonia, will destroy microbes. Composting depends on microbes although the plant does not need to add any. Just truck in a fresh load of tree limbs and they are ready to rip, Pretty much literally.
The heart of the operation in the grinder. Everything that comes into the yard is stripped of any actual garbage such as plastic bottles and bags and run through the grinder. From there it is either mixed with other material to create BT+ or used as is to make BT Green. During grinding it is hydrated to 65% humidity and then moved to windrows aligned along the aerating system which is more like the backbone and lungs of the operation. As an aerobic composting system a balance of air, water and temperature needs to be maintained. The piles naturally heat up as bacteria go to work. The amount of nitrogen-rich material needs to be below 3% of the carbon mass to limit the temperature rise. Piles need to rise above 132° to kill seeds and some harmful organisms. But they need to stay below 160° or the bacteria themselves will die. By covering the piles with already composted material the crew insulates them from the winter cold. The aerating fans actually suck air into the piles for cooling with tubes placed beneath them. The steamy air is exhausted through a filter of large wood chips to absorb smells. I will testify that the plant smells good to a farmer and there are no neighbors to complain. t
That was probably not the case in early operations at other
sites. Now the industry is highly
regulated with Washington State statutes similar to those governing
biosolids. All the material is tested
regularly for heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Records are submitted to the State Dept. of
Ecology and the local health department annually and to the US Composting
Council (USCC) Seal of Testing Assurance program monthly.
New windrows of compost are left alone for a week and then
remixed and moved to a new row. After
another week that windrow is taken off the aerator and left to finish. It takes
42 days from start to finished compost.
The large undigested chips are separated from the pile with a rotating
filter and the fine particle compost is stockpiled until sold.
It might seem that a facility that can produce 100,000 tons
of compost would be an overwhelming supply, but the numbers don’t say
that. The recommended coverage is 10
tons per acre for a couple of years on cropland. Many farms in the Columbia Basin and Palouse
are 1,000 acres. So 10 farms using
10,000 tons each could use all the compost produced. Only 60% of it is used for agriculture. The other 40% is used for landscaping, often
for highway construction.
To understand the pros and cons of compost on a big farm I
talked to Lamar Hege. His family uses
Barr-Tech compost on their 800 acres of alfalfa and grass hay near Deer
Park. He pointed out that one truckload
of chemical fertilizer contains as much nitrogen as 30 semi loads of
compost. But he prefers the
compost. He read an article in [Ital]
Progressive Forage Grower Magazine [end Ital] showing that compost enriches
soil long after synthetic fertilizer and even manure have lost their
impact. So he bought equipment
specifically for spreading compost and tills in 5 tons per acre before seeding. Obviously transportation is a big drawback
but not insurmountable. Typical
customers are within 50 miles of Sprague.
So what I learned from my foray into big compost is that it
is not a panacea but it is an option and a starting point. The bacteria are there and a lot of nutrients
for “higher” organisms such as protozoa, fungi, nematodes, mites and worms to
develop. You can add gourmet ingredients
such as manure, grass clippings and biochar to speed up creation of a complete
fertile biome. You can also build your
own piles. Grinding, moisture,
temperature and turning speed up the process.
If you want fungi, using compostable material as mulch will help them
develop in place. Moving compost slows
the growth of fungi that are crucial to root growth.
What stuck with me is the realization that despite all the
organic material I passed through in a hundred miles of farmland driving to
Sprague, the most abundant source of organic matter untainted by chemicals was
the city of Spokane.
days lately I look out my window and don’t think twice, it’s all white. But
actually if you can get out in this snow comfortably, it is a great time to
make biochar. And biochar is black!
Besides that, it is good for your soil.
So good in fact that all of our local northeast Washington state
politicians have signed on to a memorandum listing the virtues of biochar. HOUSE
JOINT MEMORIAL 4000 State of Washington 66th Legislature 2019 Regular Session
states: “WHEREAS, People working for the United States Forest Service, the
Washington State University, the University of Washington, and the Washington
State Department of Ecology have been researching the use of biochar and found
that several potential markets exist for the product, including as agricultural
soil amendments, reforestation treatments, pollution remediation, animal feed,
and landscaping material;…decrease fuel loads… increase soil carbon, soil
nutrient content, and plant productivity;”
It goes on and on but you get the idea.
biochar is cool mostly because there is money to be made selling it. But there is also money to be saved by making
it. (It costs $60/yard from Pacific
Biochar with a 40 yard minimum –
and that’s the wholesale price. I already have a lot of dead Ponderosa Pine
that leaves a lot of ash and clogs up the chimney when you burn it in a wood
stove. So we mostly burn Fir and Larch
for heat. I used to burn a big 10′
diameter pile of “agricultural waste” every year. It was spectacular, but not productive. So now I burn small batches of pine to make
biochar and after a lot of trial and error, feel like I have a good system.
You can make fancy biochar reactors. I’ve tried my hand at that. A good one is shown in the Fall 2015 issue of The Natural Farmer in the article about David Yarrow’s biochar reactor. To understand the reactor you need to understand the two stages of burning that go on in a typical fire. When you first ignite a fire the burning material, (let’s say wood for the sake of simplicity) is heated up and volatile gases vaporize, combine with oxygen and create bright flames. To the extent that they don’t combust completely, they create smoke. When those volatile gases are exhausted, pure charcoal is left. It will combust and leave only ashes if it stays hot and is exposed to oxygen. To get charcoal – essentially the same as biochar – we need to prevent that. This second stage of combustion is preferable for barbeque – even heat and no smoke – hence charcoal briquettes. The objective of a biochar reactor is to use the flame from the volatile gases to drive all the volatile resins out of the wood while creating very little smoke and then allow the oxygen to be cut off from the charcoal before it turns to ash so you can harvest the biochar.
There are two big problems with that method for me. One: even simple reactors are complicated and expensive to build and a little tricky to use. Second: once your biochar is cooled, you need to unload the reactor and start all over again. What I am going to describe is how to make “Backyard Biochar” with virtually no expense and a semi-continuous process that produces one load after another. I owe a lot in this endeavor to Gloria Flora and a simple dish that she developed as shown on her blog: http://terraflora.us/blog/. It is a cone about 3 feet across made of sheet metal. It has a flat bottom and is held together with pop rivets. The first advantage is that in a cone, the embers concentrate at the bottom even though the pieces of wood are stacked up like a classic bonfire. The second advantage is that the cone is light and has chain handles so once the embers are quenched, they can be emptied out into another container. That being said, you can do essentially the same thing with a little fireplace made out of concrete blocks and a flat-nosed shovel.
. It is a cone about 3 feet across made of sheet metal. It has a flat bottom and is held together with pop rivets. The first advantage is that in a cone, the embers concentrate at the bottom even though the pieces of wood are stacked up like a classic bonfire. The second advantage is that the cone is light and has chain handles so once the embers are quenched, they can be emptied out into another container. That being said, you can do essentially the same thing with a little fireplace made out of concrete blocks and a flat-nosed shovel.
standard cycle you get a big bonfire going of wood that is fairly uniform and
not over 3 inches thick. Any bigger and
the piece will not burn through. Much
smaller and there will be hardly any charcoal left when it stops flaming. You want the whole fire to get burning at
once. It takes a half hour to 45 minutes
usually to burn down to charcoal. You
can tell because resins flame yellow, but charcoal just glows red or has tiny
blue flames. When most of the wood has
turned to charcoal and just a few pieces are still burning with yellow flames,
you make your move. I use a pair of log
tongs from a fireplace tool set to move the burning pieces off of the charcoal
into a little stack, usually on top of a piece of bark. They keep burning. Meanwhile, especially with snow around, you
can shovel some snow on the charcoal embers.
It will melt and you can mix it in. (Later in the Spring a hose will
work as well.) I do that a couple times until there is some moisture left on
the bottom of the cone. Even though it
may still steam, the charcoal is ready.
I dump it into an apple bin and reload.
To reload I put the still-burning pieces in the bottom of
the cone. Then I add some small kindling
pieces. I fan it with an old yard sign
until the kindling catches fire. Then I
pile up another round of 3 inch wood and soon there is another roaring
bonfire. The whole cycle takes a little
over an hour. You can cycle 5 or 6 times
a day and still have some time for other chores in between quench, dump and
reload steps. After it is cooled and
dried out a bit, I run it through a shredder.
(If it is too wet, it will gum up the shredder).
For most uses people till about 10% to 15% biochar into the
soil. Although some benefits have been
show for direct use as a “soil amendment”, I think that is a mistake
in both thinking and practice. Soil is a
whole biome of living organisms. It
includes fungi, bacteria, worms, insects and year-round cover crops. Every part of it has a role that benefits the
rest. Plant roots feed sugar to those
organisms. When you till, you break up
the hyphae, the branching filaments that make up the mycelium of a fungus. Those
filaments bring water and minerals to the roots of the plants. Once broken, they take time to reform and the
soil is less alive. You also break the
roots of the cover crop that feeds sugar to microbs.
Too often we isolate some ingredient, (nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, potassium…) and think that adding more of that part will help the whole. An article in The The Natural Farmer , “Biochar a Critical View through the Ecosystemic Lens”, cautions: “In sum, the biochar fad seems to be one more of the increasing number of wishful attempts to prolong the inevitable decline of the industrial way of life. Biochar is promoted as one more technological silver bullet. Seen through the ecosystemic lens, silver bullets don’t exist. Seen through the ecosystemic lens, we do not have a shortage of anything, we have a longage of expectations.”
The best thing for new organic growth is old organic growth, dead or alive. I mix the biochar with leaf compost, shredded branches, potash and grass mulch then spread it on top of the ground. Existing fungi and microbes move into the mix and integrate it into the soil. Biochar reverses carbon pollution because it is inert and sequesters carbon. But it also entrains carbon by promoting more carbon-based life in the rest of the soil. Alan Savory in his book Holistic Management warns about the dangers of growing a crop that will be removed from its own soil, burned and changed so that it will not be recycled back into living organisms. So go ahead and make biochar in your backyard. But proceed with caution.
It is over 40º right now for the first time in over a month. December and January were like Winter Lite. Local folks were scoffing at the weather back then. I’ll try to avoid that in the future, especially if it gets very hot and dry again. February came back with a vengeance. We have not had this much snow in February since 1893 and it shows no sign yet of leaving in March. Thus one long month, Farch. Temperatures were down near 0º for us and substantially below that for most of the surrounding area. Luckily we have a good supply of wood or we would be heating with cabin fever.
During the earlier part of the winter the local birds were not very interested in our sunflower seed feeder or the suet baskets we put in the trees next to the house. But in February it was a feeding frenzy all day. (Click on the picture of the bird feeder for a video of the suet baskets.) The main crowd were Juncos. A surprising addition were Thrushes. Almost missing entirely were Chickadees. But Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers are regulars as well as an occasional Nuthatch or Flicker. We hear Eagles every morning. They have a nest across the highway from us. Once in awhile one will perch in the neighbor’s cottonwoods. Turkeys sometimes swarm the area beneath the bird feeder.
Before they started on the suet, the Thrushes ate every berry on the Rowan (Mountain Ash) tree. That tree was also popular with the local deer, who cleaned up anything left on the ground. Rocky, the Pine Squirrel had a stash of pine cones in the open ends of the wall of the shed next to the Rowan. Now there is a midden of cone petals underneath a perch by that wall. I think he (or she) may have found a way into the storage shed but so far has eluded capture in live traps.
Meanwhile our cat Gray-C is limiting outdoor time to a half an hour at a shot, taking more naps, staring out the window and playing more enthusiastically at catch-the-string. We try to keep a jacket on our dog, Gretchen when she is outside. But she does not seem to mind rolling in the snow on top of her ball with or without the jacket.
Almost as surprising were the Maple Seed Spinners that have been clinging to the trees all winter. One windy day they broke loose and covered the snow. I had wondered how their shape helped them, but the sight of their dispersal answered any questions. In the past week a new outbreak of pine cones, pine nuts and lichen have fallen around the pine trees prompted by the “Arctic Outbreak” temperatures and wind. I noticed the deer wandering through and eating all the lichen off the top of the snow. They are also eating the prickly leaves of Oregon Grape. (The leaves seem to grow right back in the Spring but there are fewer flowers and berries.)
As for us, there are plenty of indoor things to do and every morning a couple hours of chores outside such as feeding the birds, bringing in the wood, exercising the dog and picking up the mail. Last year at this time we were off on a trip to Hawaii. Right now we will settle for some bare ground and sunshine. Of course that might end up meaning “Mud Season”. And this might be another one of those “be careful what you wish for” moments. But right now If it ain’t white it’s alright with me.
After touring the Colville Wastewater Treatment Plant I met some old friends while shopping. They asked how it was going and when I told them I had just toured the sewage plant, they gave me that “Oh, oh, Joe’s gone off the deep end” look and quickly slipped away. Generally we are not comfortable talking about poop. But I have become interested in the billions of microbes in a teaspoon of fertile soil and many of those same microbes in our guts. I was thinking that there should be some boost to soil fertility from properly processed poop. So I asked Waste Treatment Plant Operator, Scott Thomas, for a tour, which he made time for on the spur of the moment.
The plant can treat almost 5 million gallons of wastewater a day and has a bypass system if it goes beyond that. There is a chart of 36 common activated sludge microorganisms that staff in the plant track as a succession of organisms digest each other into “higher” forms with “water bears” being one of the last stages – and one of my favorites. Tardigrades, AKA water bears, can enter a state of cryptobiosis, a dried up little spot to my way of thinking, that can survive in outer space. Actually they prefer ferns and lichens but there are plenty of them at the far end of the sewage plant.
The plant itself is like a giant digestive system. Everything coming in is ground down by the “muffin monster” in the headwaters building. It’s a little like chewing your food, but in this case feminine hygiene products and other junk need to be prevented from clogging the system. The bigger chunks are filtered out in the preliminary treatment plant along with heavy grit and packaged in long plastic tubes that are sent to the dump, AKA sanitary landfill. From there the real action begins in the Selector Tanks. Anaerobic (airless) digestion is started by recycling organisms into these tanks that proliferate in the raw sewage over an average holding time of 12-24 hours. From there the wastewater is fed into the Biologic Digester which is like an artificial river with aerators that introduce air into the water and propagate the next level of microbiotics. This two-stage digestion eliminates a lot of troublesome microbes that would survive anaerobic digestion.
With microbes in the final stages of development at the plant, the water is clarified and irradiated with powerful ultraviolet lights that make the microbes incapable of reproducing and then aerated to make sure it has enough dissolved oxygen before it is sent to the Colville river. Every 5 years the water is tested for just under 200 pollutants. The sludge is sent to a holding lagoon where is kept for years. The current cycle is from 2006 to 2022. Eventually the dried sludge needs to be tested by the Department of Ecology before it can be spread as fertilizer on fields. At that point it will be classified as either Class A or Class B bio-solid.
These plants need to keep their microorganisms alive and to eliminate metals: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Colville does not test for other metals or any of the 352 pollutants categorized as hazardous in federal programs other than the EPA’s bio-solid’s program . Simply put, that is not their job. These are good people doing an honest day’s work but the system conforms to laws that are not keeping up with modern society. No two wastewater treatment plants are alike or deal with the same input.
To get the lowdown on the opposition to the application of sewage sludge on agricultural land I talked with Chrys Ostrander who along with other residents of Mill Canyon, just north of Davenport, Washington, successfully stopped application of sewage sludge in fields above the canyon which is also home to Tolstoy Farm, an organic grower. Their battle was with Fire Mountain Farms of Onalaska, WA, a company with a checkered reputation that offers to apply sewage sludge on farms at no cost to the farmer (the company is paid by sewage treatment plants to take the sludge away). Despite the folksy name, Fire Mountain is rich, powerful and has very good lawyers. Several years ago neighbors of Fire Mountain’s sludge processing facility experienced an epidemic of miscarriages in their livestock. Fire Mountain was found to be illegally mixing industrial waste with sewage sludge and was shut down for a time by the Department of Ecology. A new battle is coming in Yelm with Fire Mountain waste products, mostly class B sludge, near the Nisqually River. (See http://preservethecommons.org/biosolids-near-yelm.html) Chrys considers sewage sludge to be like nuclear waste. There is no safe amount for farmland or the ecosystem.
In the opposite corner is Chris Eckhart whose family farms 1500 acres near Deer Park. They have had biosolids applied to their property. Recently they have used sludge from the City of Spokane that scans for 250 chemicals. Chris visited their plant and is glad that now his organic matter in the soil is now up to 3%, a worthwhile number. They also tried solids from the Deer Park wastewater plant. That did not turn out so well and was the last from that source.
Part of the problems with sludge are POPs and I don’t mean soda pops – though I don’t think much of those either. POPs are “persistent organic pollutants”. Basically these are things that bioconcentrate in living organisms. One of the best key tests is on phylum Annelida, earthworms. Sewage sludge can be bad for earthworms. An article about land treated with sewage sludge in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, issue 42, states “The anthropogenic (involving the impact of humans on nature) waste indicators, AWIs, detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties.”
So let’s break that down a little. Pharmaceuticals can include Warfarin, a blood thinner, Testosterone, a hormone, opiates, steroids and antibacterials. These in turn have caused antibiotic-resistant bacteria to develop in sludge-treated ground, half of which are resistant to more than one antibacterial drug. Detergent metabolites include Triclosan and Triclocarbon found in those antibacterial sprays and wipes that have become so widely advertised. They keep on killing long after leaving your kitchen. PAHs, chemicals from petroleum and coal, have been linked to skin, lung, bladder, liver, and stomach cancers in well-established animal model studies. Biogenic sterols are a reliable marker of human sewage contamination. Disinfectants and pesticides are designed to kill and will ultimately kill these earthworms. But they will still not leave the soil where they will concentrate in organisms including food plants or water again.
There are enough studies about people downwind or downstream from sewage sludge having a long list of health issues to put wind and water at the top of the list of things to consider if sewage sludge is coming to a neighborhood near you. Are biosolids totally bad? Ask the worms.
It is near the end of January and not everything is shutdown. Still it is nice to have some time to look to the future as snow and cold slow us down. I have a couple of essays planned on sewage sludge and holistic philosophy. (I knew you would be thrilled.) First here are topics of current interest.
At the top of my list of things to support and get ready for it the Global Earth Repair Conference sponsored by Friends of the Trees. It will be held May 3-5, 2019 at the Fort Warden Conference Center in Port Townsend. Over 96 presenters will be doing workshops on a multitude of topics. My favorite track is Regenerative Farming. There are already 46 tracks and registration is half full with a target of 500 participants. Costs vary but even if you cannot attend, PLEASE CONTRIBUTE TO THE GOFUNDME SITE.
In the meantime people send me links and links have links. So they can be like going down the rabbit hole. Nevertheless I want to share a couple of my favorites. The first one is to a “podcast” by Rich Roll interviewing Dr. Zack Bush. This is probably the best and most in depth discussion of the problems we face medically and environmentally and the solutions available through regenerative agriculture that I have ever heard. Unfortunately it is over 2 hours long and actually a video. So it takes up a lot of one’s data allowance. With Hughesnet I can get up at 2 AM and not spend any of my data. Possibly it is really just “audio” on some cell phones and will not be a data issue for you. At any rate it is ENTIRELY WORTH THE TIME: https://www.richroll.com/podcast/zach-bush-414/. (Thank you Amber!)
A website associated with Zach Bush is http://farmersfootprint.us/. There is already a lot of good content there but it will develop much more as some movies about these subjects come out. Unbelievably, farmers can be making $400 to $500 profit per acre annually using regenerative agriculture but stick to making $40/acre using chemicals. They face huge social and political pressures that this website was built to address.
Given the dustup over wolves and grazing cattle on forest land in Northeast Washington, this next pair of links may seem weird. But I have come to believe that grazing cattle in the forest can actually be good for the forest – improving the soil and reducing the danger of fire – and good for the cattle if it is done in a way that imitates or includes the effects of wolves. https://civileats.com/2019/01/07/silvopasture-can-mitigate-climate-change-will-u-s-farmers-take-it-seriously/ This first link goes to a short article on silvopasture, using pasture under trees. If you are interested, there is a facebook group that discusses this practice. I’m very interested in talking to anyone who has experience with this.
Please take some time to check out these links. I find that media and politics tend to ignore what are really our biggest problems and what most needs to be done about them in favor of what generates the most emotion and attention.