Barreca Vineyards

Barreca Vineyards

From Vine to Wine since 1986

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Spring Happens

I haven’t written a blog since the violets and buttercups were blooming. Now the tulips, fruit trees, dandelions, Quince, Locust, Frittilaria, Iris and Lupine have all bloomed. Is Spring officially over when a bear tears down your bird feeder (5/27/19)? There is a lot to catch up on and nobody needs a really long article to read. So I am going to boil it all down to 10 topic areas and call it good.

Iris from my Brother John, Gretchen in background, photo by Cheryl

Speaking of articles, The local Colville paper, the Statesman Examiner, ran an article about our winery on May 8th. Unfortunately unless you subscribe, you can’t look it up online. So I scanned it and there is a link here. The Silverado Express, another local paper, ran an article about the history of Tatapoo Rock that I wrote for the Heritage Network. That also is not available online so here is a link to the article on Tatapoo Rock, a landmark that is key to a lot of local history. The North Columbia Monthly is printing an article this month, Composing Compost. That article is available on this website. An article from earlier about Biochar published in the Monthly is also on this website . It prompted a talk with my brother-in-law Roger Ellison, who also makes and sells biochar among other things from his homestead, Thornbush Farm, on San Juan Island.

As you might have gathered, many of the articles are on various elements of Regenerative Agriculture . Postings about compost from Barr-Tech near Sprague, Washington prompted two of my friends to order semi-loads of compost and I bought a ton of it from one of them. It is part of the mix in the previous blog post Composing Compost 2 . I also continue to stack up pine straw and other forest litter that my wife, Cheryl, is collecting to reduce fire danger. It will be shredded into compost material too, although I have plenty from pruning the grape plants this spring.

New Grape Plants

Perhaps the biggest boost to my knowledge of Regenerative Agriculture came from attending the Global Earth Repair Conference at Port Townsend. I was pleased to meet Ronnie Cummins from the Organic Consumers Association in person. That is where I first heard about Regenerative Agriculture. I also listened to a talk by Peter Jackson on bio-remediation and decided to buy a book on Korean Natural Farming, JADAM by Youngsang Cho,. There is a lot to learn about growing your own microbes for fertilizer and pest control. It fits in well with making wine. You are bound to hear more about that in this blog. Doniga Markegard did an amazing job of presenting her experiences raising cattle a natural way. Much of it is in her book Dawn Again.

Peter Jackson workshop making micro-nutrient mud balls

Sales of Grape Plants have been big this year despite not having as many plants on hand as I could have sold. I held the line this year and will release several hundred two year old plants next year. Of course it was also the season for pruning and starting new grape plants. There are about 300 of them putting on growth on the greenhouse-crushing pad. Many of this year’s plant sales were through the Ferry Conservation District, a unit of the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and I have purchased a very nice greenhouse kit through the NRCS. It is 20 feet by 24 feet, 14 feet high and still under construction. So you may see more about that also.

Our new greenhouse at an early stage of construction

On May 9th, my sister Jeannette and her husband Bill visited and we went hunting for morel mushrooms. The weather was dry and the competition heavy on last year’s Boyds Fire burn. We did alright but the next week it rained hard so we went back and did even better. Younger folks willing to climb steep hillsides are bringing back more morels, but we are still working our way through the ones we have. Our younger neighbors Tom and Amber sold over 10 pounds of them at the Farmers Market today (6/1/2019) for $20/lb.

Speaking of the Farmers Market, it started a month ago. Cheryl and I are there in the center of Colville every Wednesday and Saturday selling wine, plants and maps. It is getting too late for plants, but we will stay on with wine and mapbooks. The rain presented a problem. Since our van broke down last year, we have been hauling the chairs, tables etc. in our 1975 Chevy Pickup. We needed a canopy for the truck and put a request out on Facebook. That worked great and we had one the same day and an even better one the next day. So now the truck bed is dry but that was far from the only “technical difficulty” we had these last two months.

Old Truck with canopy number 2

The Map Metrics website crashed while our host tried to make it more secure. It had to be rebuilt from scratch. My main mapping and finance computer crashed losing all of the programs but thankfully not the data. It ran Windows 7. Some of my programs won’t run on anything later than that and our computer repair guy says that Microsoft made sure that any new hardware won’t run old software. Luckily he found a machine running Windows 7 in his back room and I am using it now. The list goes on including a new WiFi setup and a new satellite TV setup. But you get the idea, lots of down time and expensive repairs.

Installing HDTV

Some things can’t be repaired or replaced. Several friends of ours died in the last two months including our old neighbor, Clarence Tieszen; a fellow member of our Slow Food group, George Wells; an orcharding neighbor Jim Corvino; a long-time rock club hostess, Lucie Bristow, and our one-time dental hygienist, Kelley Wood. So in a time of very good-looking growth in the vineyard and new buildings and ideas we have to remember that most growth relies on a transformative dose of death.

Composing Compost 2

Elements of Compost

To follow up on the last post about composing compost, mostly commercial from Barr-Tech near Sprague, I want to show the ingredients I am adding to the soil mix I am currently potting, planting and adding as mulch.

  1. This tub is composted leaf mulch from the yard waste dump of the City of Colville. It is two years old and has a lot of red worms in it along with a complete set of other micro-organisms. I have to screen out rocks, sticks, clumps of leaves and assorted non-biodegradable garbage to mix this in but it gives the mix a good dose of living critters to spread to the rest.
  2. This is a small bucket of potash, the stuff left when a fire burns all the way out. It has a good mix of minerals that the fungi can carry to the roots. It amounts to about 10% of the whole.
  3. This tub is full of shredded grape prunings, pine needles and other small branches. So it is almost all plant-based carbon. It gives the mix a longer life with things to digest so the initial microbes that break down plant material have a lot to work with.
  4. This is a bucket of biochar, that has been discussed in other blog posts. I could inoculate it with manure tea or other microbe-rich liquids, but that will happen naturally when the whole mix gets wet. It holds water and shelters bacteria. Again it is about 10% of the whole.
  5. This is Barr-Tech green compost. It has been broken down from mostly landscaping waste and is organically certifiable. Because of the high temperatures that produce it, protozoa, nematodes and other “higher” organisms have not inhabited it yet. But they will quickly spread into it and fill the gap between freshly shredded material and a complete living soil.
  6. The last tub (each large tub is about 20% of the mix) is aged cow manure from organically raised beef. It is crumbly and full of night-crawlers. Manure has a lot of nitrogen in it that will promote growth and good green color for photosynthesis. But too much of this good thing could heat up a pile of compost and unbalance the mix.

So that is the basic mix. You could include grass clippings, food waste and a lot of other rotting stuff. If you are building and turning piles of compost, they would be helpful in a mix like this, but not until they have broken down somewhat. Besides, there are some bigger critters that would go for the food waste (skunks, raccoons, rats…) that you really don’t want in your garden.

I tend not to put everything in one pile but to mix it just before it goes in pots or over the ground. That way the mycorrhizal fungi can grow in place and not have their hyphae broken. Just like water starts yeast growing, water starts fungi growing. They are actually closely related. So get out there and make your own mix. Living soil is good for everything in the world.

Composing Compost

Aerial View of Barr-Tech

I could pick it out on the aerial photo, a little brown square next to the freeway by the Fishtrap exit.  It looked small compared to the miles and miles of wheat fields and scab lands around Sprague, Washington.  But when I got there, it seemed anything but small.  I was researching and sometimes just plain searching for compost.  Barr-Tech is the closest and certainly the biggest composting facility in northeast Washington.  It processes 350 tons of compost each day.  As part of a contract with the City of Spokane, green landscaping material, mostly branches and leaves, some wood in need of recycling, biosolids, food and paper waste arrives at the facility in enclosed semi truck trailers that are weighed and dumped one after the other.  Windrows of steaming compost towered above huge loaders and other equipment stretching out of sight.  The spacious modern office is solar powered. I met with manager Scott Deatherage and salesman Mike Brown there to learn how it worked.

Have you looked at bags of compost and potting soil lately?  Gourmet ingredients have arrived, steer manure, sphagnum peat moss, mushroom compost, mycorrhizal fungi, perlite, kelp meal, biochar…   You won’t find those at Barr-Tech.  They have two varieties, BT+ which includes the “green” yard waste mixed with biosolids, food and paper waste and BT Green, which is just green yard waste.  BT Green can be used on certified organic farms.  BT+ cannot.  On the plus side, buying bagged compost at an average of $10 for 50 lbs. would cost $400/ton.  Buying compost at Barr-Tech costs $35- $45/cubic yard.  I’m okay with adding my own ingredients, what I came to find out was what is the basic process.

That can be as simple as stacking a bunch of yard waste and waiting a year or so, or as complicated as layering leaves, branches, soil, grass clippings etc. and adding yarrow blossoms, stinging nettle, valerian flowers and oak back in specific places as prescribed by Rudolf Steiner, father of Biodynamic Farming.  In its favor, Biodynamic researcher, Ehrenfried Pfeiffer pioneered composting municipal waste in Oakland, California in 1950.  It worked incredibly well with bacteria multiplying 300 million times within 2 or 3 days but as documented in [Ital] Secrets of the Soil [end Ital] by Tompkins and Bird, chemical companies opposed its use as fertilizer and the process was stopped until closer to this century.

Barr-Tech is still at odds with chemical companies. I’ll deal with the market end later but on the receiving end just finding organic material not contaminated by chemicals is a big issue.  Any crop, lawn or other waste source that has been treated with a chemical ending in “cide” will kill bacteria.  Even chemicals marketed as fertilizer, especially ammonia, will destroy microbes.  Composting depends on microbes although the plant does not need to add any.  Just truck in a fresh load of tree limbs and they are ready to rip, Pretty much literally.

The Grinder, heart of the compost operation

The heart of the operation in the grinder.  Everything that comes into the yard is stripped of any actual garbage such as plastic bottles and bags and run through the grinder.  From there it is either mixed with other material to create BT+ or used as is to make BT Green.  During grinding  it is hydrated to 65% humidity and then moved to windrows aligned along the aerating system which is more like the backbone and lungs of the operation.  As an aerobic composting system a balance of air, water and temperature needs to be maintained.  The piles naturally heat up as bacteria go to work.  The amount of nitrogen-rich material needs to be below 3% of the carbon mass to limit the temperature rise. Piles need to rise above 132° to kill seeds and some harmful organisms.  But they need to stay below 160° or the bacteria themselves will die.  By covering the piles with already composted material the crew insulates them from the winter cold.  The aerating fans actually suck air into the piles for cooling with tubes placed beneath them.  The steamy air is exhausted through a filter of large wood chips to absorb smells.  I will testify that the plant smells good to a farmer and there are no neighbors to complain. t

That was probably not the case in early operations at other sites.  Now the industry is highly regulated with Washington State statutes similar to those governing biosolids.  All the material is tested regularly for heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs).  Records are submitted to the State Dept. of Ecology and the local health department annually and to the US Composting Council (USCC) Seal of Testing Assurance program monthly.

The compost turner remixes the windrows

New windrows of compost are left alone for a week and then remixed and moved to a new row.  After another week that windrow is taken off the aerator and left to finish. It takes 42 days from start to finished compost.  The large undigested chips are separated from the pile with a rotating filter and the fine particle compost is stockpiled until sold.

It might seem that a facility that can produce 100,000 tons of compost would be an overwhelming supply, but the numbers don’t say that.  The recommended coverage is 10 tons per acre for a couple of years on cropland.  Many farms in the Columbia Basin and Palouse are 1,000 acres.  So 10 farms using 10,000 tons each could use all the compost produced.  Only 60% of it is used for agriculture.  The other 40% is used for landscaping, often for highway construction.

To understand the pros and cons of compost on a big farm I talked to Lamar Hege.  His family uses Barr-Tech compost on their 800 acres of alfalfa and grass hay near Deer Park.  He pointed out that one truckload of chemical fertilizer contains as much nitrogen as 30 semi loads of compost.  But he prefers the compost.  He read an article in [Ital] Progressive Forage Grower Magazine [end Ital] showing that compost enriches soil long after synthetic fertilizer and even manure have lost their impact.  So he bought equipment specifically for spreading compost and tills in 5 tons per acre before seeding.  Obviously transportation is a big drawback but not insurmountable.  Typical customers are within 50 miles of Sprague.

One ton, (2 yards) of compost

So what I learned from my foray into big compost is that it is not a panacea but it is an option and a starting point.  The bacteria are there and a lot of nutrients for “higher” organisms such as protozoa, fungi, nematodes, mites and worms to develop.  You can add gourmet ingredients such as manure, grass clippings and biochar to speed up creation of a complete fertile biome.  You can also build your own piles.  Grinding, moisture, temperature and turning speed up the process.  If you want fungi, using compostable material as mulch will help them develop in place.  Moving compost slows the growth of fungi that are crucial to root growth. 

What stuck with me is the realization that despite all the organic material I passed through in a hundred miles of farmland driving to Sprague, the most abundant source of organic matter untainted by chemicals was the city of Spokane.

Backyard Biochar

by Joseph Barreca

Terra Flora conical biochar fireplace

Most days lately I look out my window and don’t think twice, it’s all white. But actually if you can get out in this snow comfortably, it is a great time to make biochar.  And biochar is black! Besides that, it is good for your soil.  So good in fact that all of our local northeast Washington state politicians have signed on to a memorandum listing the virtues of biochar.  HOUSE JOINT MEMORIAL 4000 State of Washington 66th Legislature 2019 Regular Session states: “WHEREAS, People working for the United States Forest Service, the Washington State University, the University of Washington, and the Washington State Department of Ecology have been researching the use of biochar and found that several potential markets exist for the product, including as agricultural soil amendments, reforestation treatments, pollution remediation, animal feed, and landscaping material;…decrease fuel loads… increase soil carbon, soil nutrient content, and plant productivity;”  It goes on and on but you get the idea. 

Biochar ready to quench

Suddenly biochar is cool mostly because there is money to be made selling it.  But there is also money to be saved by making it.  (It costs $60/yard from Pacific Biochar with a 40 yard minimum – and that’s the wholesale price.   I already have a lot of dead Ponderosa Pine that leaves a lot of ash and clogs up the chimney when you burn it in a wood stove.  So we mostly burn Fir and Larch for heat.  I used to burn a big 10′ diameter pile of “agricultural waste” every year.  It was spectacular, but not productive.  So now I burn small batches of pine to make biochar and after a lot of trial and error, feel like I have a good system.

You can make fancy biochar reactors.  I’ve tried my hand at that.  A good one is shown in the Fall 2015 issue of The Natural Farmer in the article about David Yarrow’s biochar reactor.  To understand the reactor you need to understand the two stages of burning that go on in a typical fire.  When you first ignite a fire the burning material, (let’s say wood for the sake of simplicity) is heated up and volatile gases vaporize, combine with oxygen and create bright flames.  To the extent that they don’t combust completely, they create smoke.  When those volatile gases are exhausted, pure charcoal is left. It will combust and leave only ashes if it stays hot and is exposed to oxygen.  To get charcoal – essentially the same as biochar – we need to prevent that. This second stage of combustion is preferable for barbeque – even heat and no smoke – hence charcoal briquettes.  The objective of a biochar reactor is to use the flame from the volatile gases to drive all the volatile resins out of the wood while creating very little smoke and then allow the oxygen to be cut off from the charcoal before it turns to ash so you can harvest the biochar.

There are two big problems with that method for me.  One: even simple reactors are complicated and expensive to build and a little tricky to use.  Second: once your biochar is cooled, you need to unload the reactor and start all over again.  What I am going to describe is how to make “Backyard Biochar” with virtually no expense and a semi-continuous process that produces one load after another.  I owe a lot in this endeavor to Gloria Flora and a simple dish that she developed as shown on her blog: http://terraflora.us/blog/.   It is a cone about 3 feet across made of sheet metal.  It has a flat bottom and is held together with pop rivets.  The first advantage is that in a cone, the embers concentrate at the bottom even though the pieces of wood are stacked up like a classic bonfire.  The second advantage is that the cone is light and has chain handles so once the embers are quenched, they can be emptied out into another container.  That being said, you can do essentially the same thing with a little fireplace made out of concrete blocks and a flat-nosed shovel.

.   It is a cone about 3 feet across made of sheet metal.  It has a flat bottom and is held together with pop rivets.  The first advantage is that in a cone, the embers concentrate at the bottom even though the pieces of wood are stacked up like a classic bonfire.  The second advantage is that the cone is light and has chain handles so once the embers are quenched, they can be emptied out into another container.  That being said, you can do essentially the same thing with a little fireplace made out of concrete blocks and a flat-nosed shovel.

Advice from Roger Ellison

In a standard cycle you get a big bonfire going of wood that is fairly uniform and not over 3 inches thick.  Any bigger and the piece will not burn through.  Much smaller and there will be hardly any charcoal left when it stops flaming.  You want the whole fire to get burning at once.  It takes a half hour to 45 minutes usually to burn down to charcoal.  You can tell because resins flame yellow, but charcoal just glows red or has tiny blue flames.  When most of the wood has turned to charcoal and just a few pieces are still burning with yellow flames, you make your move.  I use a pair of log tongs from a fireplace tool set to move the burning pieces off of the charcoal into a little stack, usually on top of a piece of bark. They keep burning.  Meanwhile, especially with snow around, you can shovel some snow on the charcoal embers.  It will melt and you can mix it in. (Later in the Spring a hose will work as well.) I do that a couple times until there is some moisture left on the bottom of the cone.  Even though it may still steam, the charcoal is ready.  I dump it into an apple bin and reload.

To reload I put the still-burning pieces in the bottom of the cone.  Then I add some small kindling pieces.  I fan it with an old yard sign until the kindling catches fire.  Then I pile up another round of 3 inch wood and soon there is another roaring bonfire.  The whole cycle takes a little over an hour.  You can cycle 5 or 6 times a day and still have some time for other chores in between quench, dump and reload steps.  After it is cooled and dried out a bit, I run it through a shredder.  (If it is too wet, it will gum up the shredder).

For most uses people till about 10% to 15% biochar into the soil.  Although some benefits have been show for direct use as a “soil amendment”, I think that is a mistake in both thinking and practice.  Soil is a whole biome of living organisms.  It includes fungi, bacteria, worms, insects and year-round cover crops.  Every part of it has a role that benefits the rest.  Plant roots feed sugar to those organisms.  When you till, you break up the hyphae, the branching filaments that make up the mycelium of a fungus. Those filaments bring water and minerals to the roots of the plants.  Once broken, they take time to reform and the soil is less alive.  You also break the roots of the cover crop that feeds sugar to microbs.

Too often we isolate some ingredient, (nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, potassium…) and think that adding more of that part will help the whole.  An article in The The Natural Farmer , “Biochar a Critical View through the Ecosystemic Lens”, cautions: “In sum, the biochar fad seems to be one more of the increasing number of wishful attempts to prolong the inevitable decline of the industrial way of life. Biochar is promoted as one more technological silver bullet. Seen through the ecosystemic lens, silver bullets don’t exist. Seen through the ecosystemic lens, we do not have a shortage of anything, we have a longage of expectations.”

The best thing for new organic growth is old organic growth, dead or alive.  I mix the biochar with leaf compost, shredded branches, potash and grass mulch then spread it on top of the ground.  Existing fungi and microbes move into the mix and integrate it into the soil. Biochar reverses carbon pollution because it is inert and sequesters carbon.  But it also entrains carbon by promoting more carbon-based life in the rest of the soil.  Alan Savory in his book Holistic Management warns about the dangers of growing a crop that will be removed from its own soil, burned and changed so that it will not be recycled back into living organisms.  So go ahead and make biochar in your backyard. But proceed with caution.

Time Farches On

It is over 40º right now for the first time in over a month. December and January were like Winter Lite. Local folks were scoffing at the weather back then. I’ll try to avoid that in the future, especially if it gets very hot and dry again. February came back with a vengeance. We have not had this much snow in February since 1893 and it shows no sign yet of leaving in March. Thus one long month, Farch. Temperatures were down near 0º for us and substantially below that for most of the surrounding area. Luckily we have a good supply of wood or we would be heating with cabin fever.

During the earlier part of the winter the local birds were not very interested in our sunflower seed feeder or the suet baskets we put in the trees next to the house. But in February it was a feeding frenzy all day. (Click on the picture of the bird feeder for a video of the suet baskets.) The main crowd were Juncos. A surprising addition were Thrushes. Almost missing entirely were Chickadees. But Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers are regulars as well as an occasional Nuthatch or Flicker. We hear Eagles every morning. They have a nest across the highway from us. Once in awhile one will perch in the neighbor’s cottonwoods. Turkeys sometimes swarm the area beneath the bird feeder.

Rowan Tree

Before they started on the suet, the Thrushes ate every berry on the Rowan (Mountain Ash) tree. That tree was also popular with the local deer, who cleaned up anything left on the ground. Rocky, the Pine Squirrel had a stash of pine cones in the open ends of the wall of the shed next to the Rowan. Now there is a midden of cone petals underneath a perch by that wall. I think he (or she) may have found a way into the storage shed but so far has eluded capture in live traps.

Meanwhile our cat Gray-C is limiting outdoor time to a half an hour at a shot, taking more naps, staring out the window and playing more enthusiastically at catch-the-string. We try to keep a jacket on our dog, Gretchen when she is outside. But she does not seem to mind rolling in the snow on top of her ball with or without the jacket.

Almost as surprising were the Maple Seed Spinners that have been clinging to the trees all winter. One windy day they broke loose and covered the snow. I had wondered how their shape helped them, but the sight of their dispersal answered any questions. In the past week a new outbreak of pine cones, pine nuts and lichen have fallen around the pine trees prompted by the “Arctic Outbreak” temperatures and wind. I noticed the deer wandering through and eating all the lichen off the top of the snow. They are also eating the prickly leaves of Oregon Grape. (The leaves seem to grow right back in the Spring but there are fewer flowers and berries.)

As for us, there are plenty of indoor things to do and every morning a couple hours of chores outside such as feeding the birds, bringing in the wood, exercising the dog and picking up the mail. Last year at this time we were off on a trip to Hawaii. Right now we will settle for some bare ground and sunshine. Of course that might end up meaning “Mud Season”. And this might be another one of those “be careful what you wish for” moments. But right now If it ain’t white it’s alright with me.

Sewage Wars

Scott Thomas at the Wastewater Treatment Plant

After touring the Colville Wastewater Treatment Plant I met some old friends while shopping. They asked how it was going and when I told them I had just toured the sewage plant, they gave me that “Oh, oh, Joe’s gone off the deep end” look and quickly slipped away. Generally we are not comfortable talking about poop. But I have become interested in the billions of microbes in a teaspoon of fertile soil and many of those same microbes in our guts. I was thinking that there should be some boost to soil fertility from properly processed poop. So I asked Waste Treatment Plant Operator, Scott Thomas, for a tour, which he made time for on the spur of the moment.

The plant can treat almost 5 million gallons of wastewater a day and has a bypass system if it goes beyond that. There is a chart of 36 common activated sludge microorganisms that staff in the plant track as a succession of organisms digest each other into “higher” forms with “water bears” being one of the last stages – and one of my favorites. Tardigrades, AKA water bears, can enter a state of cryptobiosis, a dried up little spot to my way of thinking, that can survive in outer space. Actually they prefer ferns and lichens but there are plenty of them at the far end of the sewage plant.

Water Bear

The plant itself is like a giant digestive system. Everything coming in is ground down by the “muffin monster” in the headwaters building. It’s a little like chewing your food, but in this case feminine hygiene products and other junk need to be prevented from clogging the system. The bigger chunks are filtered out in the preliminary treatment plant along with heavy grit and packaged in long plastic tubes that are sent to the dump, AKA sanitary landfill. From there the real action begins in the Selector Tanks. Anaerobic (airless) digestion is started by recycling organisms into these tanks that proliferate in the raw sewage over an average holding time of 12-24 hours. From there the wastewater is fed into the Biologic Digester which is like an artificial river with aerators that introduce air into the water and propagate the next level of microbiotics. This two-stage digestion eliminates a lot of troublesome microbes that would survive anaerobic digestion.

With microbes in the final stages of development at the plant, the water is clarified and irradiated with powerful ultraviolet lights that make the microbes incapable of reproducing and then aerated to make sure it has enough dissolved oxygen before it is sent to the Colville river. Every 5 years the water is tested for just under 200 pollutants. The sludge is sent to a holding lagoon where is kept for years. The current cycle is from 2006 to 2022. Eventually the dried sludge needs to be tested by the Department of Ecology before it can be spread as fertilizer on fields. At that point it will be classified as either Class A or Class B bio-solid.

These plants need to keep their microorganisms alive and to eliminate metals: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Colville does not test for other metals or any of the 352 pollutants categorized as hazardous in federal programs other than the EPA’s bio-solid’s program . Simply put, that is not their job. These are good people doing an honest day’s work but the system conforms to laws that are not keeping up with modern society. No two wastewater treatment plants are alike or deal with the same input.

Spreading Bio-solids

To get the lowdown on the opposition to the application of sewage sludge on agricultural land I talked with Chrys Ostrander who along with other residents of Mill Canyon, just north of Davenport, Washington, successfully stopped application of sewage sludge in fields above the canyon which is also home to Tolstoy Farm, an organic grower. Their battle was with Fire Mountain Farms of Onalaska, WA, a company with a checkered reputation that offers to apply sewage sludge on farms at no cost to the farmer (the company is paid by sewage treatment plants to take the sludge away). Despite the folksy name, Fire Mountain is rich, powerful and has very good lawyers. Several years ago neighbors of Fire Mountain’s sludge processing facility experienced an epidemic of miscarriages in their livestock. Fire Mountain was found to be illegally mixing industrial waste with sewage sludge and was shut down for a time by the Department of Ecology. A new battle is coming in Yelm with Fire Mountain waste products, mostly class B sludge, near the Nisqually River. (See http://preservethecommons.org/biosolids-near-yelm.html) Chrys considers sewage sludge to be like nuclear waste. There is no safe amount for farmland or the ecosystem.

In the opposite corner is Chris Eckhart whose family farms 1500 acres near Deer Park. They have had biosolids applied to their property. Recently they have used sludge from the City of Spokane that scans for 250 chemicals. Chris visited their plant and is glad that now his organic matter in the soil is now up to 3%, a worthwhile number.  They also tried solids from the Deer Park wastewater plant. That did not turn out so well and was the last from that source.

Night Crawler

Part of the problems with sludge are POPs and I don’t mean soda pops – though I don’t think much of those either. POPs are “persistent organic pollutants”. Basically these are things that bioconcentrate in living organisms. One of the best key tests is on phylum Annelida, earthworms. Sewage sludge can be bad for earthworms. An article about land treated with sewage sludge in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, issue 42, states “The anthropogenic (involving the impact of humans on nature) waste indicators, AWIs, detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties.”

So let’s break that down a little. Pharmaceuticals can include Warfarin, a blood thinner, Testosterone, a hormone, opiates, steroids and antibacterials. These in turn have caused antibiotic-resistant bacteria to develop in sludge-treated ground, half of which are resistant to more than one antibacterial drug. Detergent metabolites include Triclosan and Triclocarbon found in those antibacterial sprays and wipes that have become so widely advertised. They keep on killing long after leaving your kitchen. PAHs, chemicals from petroleum and coal, have been linked to skin, lung, bladder, liver, and stomach cancers in well-established animal model studies. Biogenic sterols are a reliable marker of human sewage contamination. Disinfectants and pesticides are designed to kill and will ultimately kill these earthworms. But they will still not leave the soil where they will concentrate in organisms including food plants or water again.

There are enough studies about people downwind or downstream from sewage sludge having a long list of health issues to put wind and water at the top of the list of things to consider if sewage sludge is coming to a neighborhood near you. Are biosolids totally bad? Ask the worms.

Winter Links

It is near the end of January and not everything is shutdown. Still it is nice to have some time to look to the future as snow and cold slow us down. I have a couple of essays planned on sewage sludge and holistic philosophy. (I knew you would be thrilled.)  First here are topics of current interest.

At the top of my list of things to support and get ready for it the Global Earth Repair Conference  sponsored by Friends of the Trees. It will be held May 3-5, 2019 at the Fort Warden Conference Center in Port Townsend. Over 96 presenters will be doing workshops on a multitude of topics. My favorite track is Regenerative Farming. There are already 46 tracks and registration is half full with a target of 500 participants. Costs vary but even if you cannot attend, PLEASE CONTRIBUTE TO THE GOFUNDME SITE.  

In the meantime people send me links and links have links. So they can be like going down the rabbit hole. Nevertheless I want to share a couple of my favorites. The first one is to a “podcast” by Rich Roll interviewing Dr. Zack Bush. This is probably the best and most in depth discussion of the problems we face medically and environmentally and the solutions available through regenerative agriculture that I have ever heard. Unfortunately it is over 2 hours long and actually a video. So it takes up a lot of one’s data allowance. With Hughesnet I can get up at 2 AM and not spend any of my data. Possibly it is really just “audio” on some cell phones and will not be a data issue for you. At any rate it is ENTIRELY WORTH THE TIME: https://www.richroll.com/podcast/zach-bush-414/. (Thank you Amber!)

A website associated with Zach Bush is http://farmersfootprint.us/. There is already a lot of good content there but it will develop much more as some movies about these subjects come out. Unbelievably, farmers can be making $400 to $500 profit per acre annually using regenerative agriculture but stick to making $40/acre using chemicals. They face huge social and political pressures that this website was built to address.

Another podcast in this series features Dr. Bush again, https://www.richroll.com/podcast/zach-bush-353/. It is also very good and deals in more depth with the medical implications of what we are up against.

Given the dustup over wolves and grazing cattle on forest land in Northeast Washington, this next pair of links may seem weird. But I have come to believe that grazing cattle in the forest can actually be good for the forest – improving the soil and reducing the danger of fire – and good for the cattle if it is done in a way that imitates or includes the effects of wolves.
https://civileats.com/2019/01/07/silvopasture-can-mitigate-climate-change-will-u-s-farmers-take-it-seriously/ This first link goes to a short article on silvopasture, using pasture under trees. If you are interested, there is a facebook group that discusses this practice.  I’m very interested in talking to anyone who has experience with this.

This final link is a bit more general. It goes to an article on things corporations are doing that are actually encouraging. They include development of Regenerative Agricultural Certification and restoration of a huge 27,000 acre mangrove forest in Columbia.  https://www.fastcompany.com/90279292/the-most-exciting-corporate-sustainability-moves-of-2018

Mangrove Swamp in Columbia – a huge carbon sink

Please take some time to check out these links. I find that media and politics tend to ignore what are really our biggest problems and what most needs to be done about them in favor of what generates the most emotion and attention.

Baco Noir, Books and Biochar

Ron Irvine

It’s nice to have some confirmation that your wines are good from a wine expert. Recently I was pleased to learn that Ronald Irvine has tasted Barreca Vineyards varieties Léon Millot and Baco Noir. Before I elaborate on what he had to say let’s introduce Ron.

Prior to purchasing the Vashon Winery nearly 20 years ago, Ron was active in preserving the Pike Place Market and he started Pike & Western Wine Shop, which he operated for 15 years. (I’m pretty sure that I bought my first grape crusher there.) Ron is also the co-author with Walter Clore of the book, “The Wine Project: Washington State’s Winemaking History.”
I bought that book last year. It is a good read that contains stories of visits to all of the early and major Washington wineries published in 1997. Early on there were only 5 wineries in the state. Now there are over 1500.

Mark Musick introduced the wine to Ron. Here is his description of how it went:
“We started with the Léon Millot, which Ron said was much cleaner and softer than he’d anticipated, most likely because it was harvested at 27° Brix, which is higher than any he’s seen. He said it’s phenomenal you didn’t add sugar.  Ron added that the wine didn’t have the Concorde “grapey” quality he expected. He said that, while the Léon Millot has good fruit characteristics, it’s also “leathery,” so it’s not all fruitiness. He said he thought people would like the wine because it’s so soft and easy to drink. However, he didn’t think it had the acidity to pair well with food…

Mark Musick

From there we turned to the Baco Noir. Ron started by saying it “smelled wonderful,” and he guessed it was because the wine quickly “opened up” due to the lack of sulfites. Because of its higher Ph, Ron said it was sharper, crisper, has more of a “bight,” and would likely pair better with food. He also said the wine would likely age longer…

The bottom line is that Ron thought both of your wines that we samples are good to very good. I’m a novice wine taster, but I had to agree. The Baco Noir in particular would have been easy to drink all afternoon!”

Ron was worried about my “Natural” wines since they do not have sulfites. I think this is a topic that needs a lot more awareness and to that end I added a page to this website, What’s in Your Wine.. I think everyone should read that article because it has a lot to do with personal health as well as the health of the soil and environment.

Another great book, besides The Wine Project, is David Montgomery and Anne Bikle’s The Hidden Half of Nature. This book finally takes all the lessons about how microbes work together in the soil to keep each other and plants healthy and describes in detail how those same microbial systems work inside of our guts to keep us healthy. It is readable (and pardon the pun) digestible in a way that many semi-scientific books are not. Really, you won’t think about gardening or eating the same way again after reading this book.

Christmas at our house.

Meanwhile besides Christmas, New Years etc. the weather has been mild and given me a chance to make a lot more biochar. Thanks to Joe Petrucelli, owner of Meyers Falls Market, I now have an old apple bin to store the stuff in and some new techniques for making it. You can expect a lot more on that topic in months to come.

All the leaves are brown

All the leaves are brown and the sky is gray…
(California Dreamin, the Mamas and the Papas)

The Sky is Gray

Four days after Halloween daylight savings time ends. It gets dark around 4 PM. On the bright side there is daylight at 7 AM. What really closes in is the realization that although winter might not be officially here, for all practical purposes it already is. Get the wood in. Cover anything you don’t want wet. Bring in the crops… I’m sure they put Thanksgiving toward the end of the month because if you are ready for winter by then, it’s really something to be thankful for.

At least the cooler weather keeps fruit well. Unlike grapes, that need immediate attention, apples can wait. So days crushing apples for fresh cider, cider to freeze and cider to make wine out of were spaced out all month. I have been crushing and pressing apples on what I believe is the first apple press made at the American Village Institute in Marcus. They still make cider presses. I worked in their foundry around 1977 having already ordered a cider press, I was able to cast parts for one that was assembled on site at the end of our apprenticeship week and it has my initials cast into it.

AVI = American Village Institute, JB is me, American Harvester is the style.

Now that it is 40+ years old, it cranks a little slower – that may just be me. The juice leaks out in places but mostly goes in the stainless steel bowls where it should. There are no real bearings but the 25 pound flywheel keeps the crusher turning except if you put more than one apple through it at a time. It takes 3/4 of a box of apples to fill one pressing basket and make about a gallon of juice. I crank with one hand and load apples with the other. It goes pretty easy at first but by the time the basket is full (believe me), Nordic Track has nothing on my cider press. So it is really good exercise and I am going to totally rebuild it with an electric motor and real bearings or just replace it as soon as I can.

While crushing apples I listened to Rocky, the overachiever pine squirrel, who has been dropping pine cones from 100 ft up on our huge central Ponderosa pine tree at a prodigious rate. He (or she) takes an occasional break to sit on a limb and chatter at us in between bombing runs and trips stuffing pine cones in the open ends of the old house forms that make up our shop and woodshed. He is good company but don’t walk under that pine tree.

Rocky with a pinecone

The cider process is also popular with deer, who come round to eat the leftover apple pulp from the pressing. I have been trying to mix some of it in with the compost I am still spreading between the vineyard rows, but I don’t always get to that right away and the deer essentially camp out here when there is apple pulp by the compost. There’s nothing like going into your back yard at night and seeing two bright green eyes staring at your headlamp from a deer bedded down on the lawn.

Gray-C before

Another creature to feature this month has to be our cat, Gray-C. Cheryl started humming Christmas carols with Gray-C on her lap earlier this month and Gray-C started meowing along with her. But later a big orange tabby feral cat moved into our outbuildings and we saw the two cats sitting in a tree yowling at each other one morning. A couple nights later a cat fight broke out on the south side of the house. There were tufts of orange and gray hair left on the grass in the morning. I wish that was the end of it. But on November 27th Cheryl discovered that Gray-C had a swollen cheek. A hastily arranged visit to the vet confirmed that there was an abscess that had to be lanced after shaving off hair on one side of her face. A couple days later Gray-C brought in not one, but 2 dead mice in the evening and has not slowed down since. It’s probably her way of making up for the vet bill.

Gray-C after a close shave

We celebrated the end of the month at Thanksgiving with our daughter April and her family and friends. Snow was falling on Boulder Creek pass as we drove home but has not managed to stick here yet. Huckleberry/Apple wine is working and wafting great smells in the office/winery. New mapping and history projects are spread over the desk. Gretchen and Gray-C warm up by the wood stove in the morning. All the leaves are brown and the sky is gray, but it’s okay.

Thanksgiving Dinner